Wild cats do not suffer from the appearance of Tartar. They have plaque cleared spontaneously in the process of chewing grass, twigs, eating rough food. But Pets are deprived of this opportunity, so Tartar is a frequent reason for contacting a veterinary clinic.
Causes of occurrence
Tartar is formed from saliva, food residues, and mineral salts. The plaque, at first insignificant, later thickens and hardens, acquires a yellowish-brown hue. The site of localization of neoplasms are the areas of the back teeth and canines. This is a long process, sometimes lasting six months.
The following factors contribute to the appearance of Tartar:
- Dishes from the master’s table, soft food. No dry food.
- Metabolic disorders (salt and mineral).
- Anomalies of the dentition.
- Poor dental and gum care.
Do not ignore the appearance of neoplasms on the teeth: the calcified plaque creates a favorable environment for pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, the harder it is, the more difficult it is to clean it later.
Which breeds are more susceptible
Tartar can form in any animal, the most susceptible to this phenomenon are elderly cats, animals with weakened immune systems. At risk are such breeds as Siamese, Persian, British, Scottish, and Abyssinian. That is why veterinarians recommend brushing their teeth more often than representatives of other breeds.
The clinical picture
Tartar can be subgingival or supragingival.
Subgingival neoplasms are formed under the gum. They can only be detected during the examination, which is carried out with the help of dental instruments. The stones are close to the neck of the tooth, hard, dark brown, sometimes black.
Supragingival stones, respectively, are formed over the gum, visible even to the naked eye. Easily separated from enamel, has a porous but solid structure, yellowish tint.
The clinical picture: the appearance of a bad smell from the oral cavity, inflammation and bleeding gums, shaky teeth. The animal experiences severe discomfort, refuses to eat, especially solid food, and loses weight.
Diagnostics in the veterinary clinic
For an experienced veterinarian, diagnosis of Tartar in cats is not difficult. In a veterinary clinic, it is carried out by the usual examination method.
The owner of the cat can determine the presence of this problem in his pet. To do this, just run a simple test: moisten a cotton swab with solutions of Lugol or iodine (5%) and RUB your teeth with it, grabbing the gums adjacent to them.
After performing this manipulation, the stone is clearly visible.
Treatment method and prognosis
Tartar removal is performed in a veterinary clinic. The procedure is performed under General anesthesia. The operation duration is 1 hour.
To remove mineralized deposits on the surface of the teeth, two methods are used — ultrasonic and mechanical.
For mechanical cleaning, dental instruments are used, and it is performed manually. The procedure is inexpensive, but has a significant drawback-possible damage to the enamel. That is why veterinarians recommend mechanical removal only in cases of complete contraindication to General anesthesia.
The ultrasound method is a modern and absolutely painless procedure performed using special equipment. Ultrasound is able to cope with the hardest calcareous deposits, peeling them from the tooth tissues.
During the procedure, not only plaque is removed, but also pathological microorganisms are destroyed, dental pockets and interdental spaces are cleaned. The method is absolutely safe, since the enamel is not damaged, and anesthesia is only used to immobilize the pet.
Since after brushing the teeth, the enamel gets a rough surface, which creates the prerequisites for the re-formation of the stone, polishing is necessary. The perfect smoothness of the enamel is achieved with the help of special pastes and brushes.
Fluoridation (applying a special varnish or gel with sodium fluoride to the teeth) – a desirable, but optional stage of cleaning the Tartar. With this procedure, the hypersensitivity of the teeth is reduced, and the enamel is strengthened, which makes it less vulnerable to caries.
What to do at home
You can not try to remove Tartar yourself, this can cause serious injury to the pet. The procedure is performed exclusively in a veterinary clinic under anesthesia.
For prevention purposes, it is advisable to periodically give the cat Royal Canin food, Oral line. Dry granules prevent the appearance of plaque by binding the calcium contained in saliva and providing a complete mechanical cleaning of teeth.
Veterinarians note that cats that use medicinal food, the layer of plaque decreases, its growth slows down, and in addition, the natural shade of tooth enamel is restored.
Tartar is a danger to the cat’s health. Growing, mineral deposits form a tooth pocket, cause gum irritation.
In addition, it contributes to the appearance of dental diseases such as gingivitis, caries, periodontitis, periodontitis, osteomyelitis, which, in turn, cause not only wobbling and loss of dentition, but also purulent processes, sepsis, creating dangerous prerequisites for death.
Preventive measures for Tartar include a balanced diet enriched with vitamins and trace elements, regular brushing of teeth with a paste with chlorophyll and enzymes, and examinations in a veterinary institution. The cat’s diet should consist not only of soft, but also solid food, so that they can chew it.