The genitourinary system is represented by the kidneys, bladder, urinary tract, prostate (males), ovaries (females), uterus, and genitals.
With changes in the normal state of the body, inflammation begins. Bacteria that inhabit the genitourinary organs, leading a peaceful lifestyle, begin to multiply intensively and cause diseases. This can occur during stress, sudden changes in living conditions, nutrition, hypothermia.
There are many pathologies of the genitourinary system. All of them require treatment from a veterinarian. An important point in the diagnosis of this group of diseases is a correct diagnosis. Periodic examination of particularly predisposed dog breeds.
Kidney diseases (nephritis, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis)
In dogs, kidney inflammation is registered more often than in other animals. This is primarily due to improper feeding. The dog is a predator and should get enough meat. If the animal is fed cereals and vegetables, the urine will be alkaline.
Whereas with proper feeding — sour. Microbes don’t survive in this environment. And in alkaline begin to feel great and multiply. This causes inflammation.
In addition, the causes of kidney diseases can be chemical and physical long-term exposure, infection from the urinary tract, hypothermia. Exposure to allergens and pathological processes.
Signs of kidney disease:
- painful sensations when urinating;
- pain in the lumbar spine or abdomen;
- rapid urination;
- urine with blood;
- arching my back;
- the smell of urine from the mouth.
Treatment is carried out with antibiotics, homeopathic medicines, corticosteroids, novocaine blockade, antispasmodics, diuretics. Medicinal herbs, medicinal dog food, and dietary food are prescribed.
It is necessary to provide your pet with a dry place, clean water at room temperature.
For prevention purposes, keep animals in a warm and dry room, without drafts, avoid hypothermia, and feed them properly.
Diseases of the bladder (cystitis, spasms)
A spasm is a strong contraction of the smooth muscles of the bladder. The muscles have contracted and cannot relax, which causes pain. Bladder spasms occur with urolithiasis, against the background of cystitis. The dog is restless, the bladder is tense and full. Urine is poorly excreted or completely absent.
The pathology is removed by antispasmodics, homeopathic medicines. They are injected either subcutaneously or intramuscularly, or into the bladder using a catheter.
Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder mucosa. Occurs when you get an infection, hypothermia. Since the bladder is quite resistant to bacteria, a certain provoking factor is needed for the disease to occur. For example, violation of urination, blood circulation, weakened immunity.
The main symptoms:
- urine with blood;
- frequent urination with pain;
- persistent ineffectual urge;
- high temperature;
- admixture of pus in the urine, mucus.
The doctor provides treatment with antibiotics, sulfonamides, and herbal preparations. For prevention purposes, keep the dog in a dry room, avoid drafts, hypothermia. You need to follow a proper diet, which will help avoid urolithiasis.
Balanoposthitis — inflammation of the prepuce and glans of the penis at the same time. Characterized by pain and redness, discharge of pus, less often blood. Occurs when urine and semen accumulate in the preputial SAC. It is also possible to develop the disease if there is phimosis — narrowing of the foreskin.
Treatment is reduced to washing the prepuce with potassium permanganate (weak solution) or chlorhexidine. Then the introduction of syntomycin or levomekol ointment. In severe cases, antibiotics are prescribed. Treatment lasts 2-3 weeks.
Prevention — regular examination by a veterinarian, preventive washing of the prepuce.
Urolithiasis — the formation of stones or sand in the kidneys, bladder, which prevents the normal separation of urine.
It is more common in cats than in dogs. However, some dog breeds are more prone to this disease. This is associated with a genetic disorder of phosphorus-calcium metabolism. In addition, the cause of urolithiasis can be an infection of the genitourinary tract.
Improper feeding — the predominance of protein over carbohydrates, excess fish and dairy products.
The pathology is characterized by the accumulation of concretions or stones in the bladder, renal pelvis. In fact, stones are calcium or phosphorus salts that accumulate and do not allow the urine to be normally excreted. If too many of them are formed, blockage of the urinary ducts may occur. This leads to the death of the animal.
Symptomatically, the disease manifests itself:
- pain when urinating;
- by refusing to eat;
- frequent or difficult urination.
The dog should be shown to the vet as soon as possible. He will prescribe antispasmodics, a special diet that excludes large amounts of calcium and phosphorus salts. Diet is an important component of therapy. Therapeutic nutrition can dissolve stones and sand in the kidneys and bladder.
For prevention, you need to make the right diet for feeding the dog, corresponding to its breed. Also, avoid infections of the genitourinary system.
Testicular inflammation, or orchitis, is most often caused by injuries, bites, and frostbite. It is possible to transfer the infection from the urinary tract through the spermatic cords.
The dog experiences pain, the testes become reddened, hot, and hard to the touch. The dog moves with difficulty, spreading its hind legs, squeezing its stomach. With purulent orchitis, multiple abscesses may form. If the process is delayed, the testicle may atrophy (decreases and loses its functions). In this case, only castration is shown.
The veterinarian usually prescribes antibiotics, sulfonamides inside. Apply antibiotic ointments locally. Novocaine for pain relief. Antihistamines and corticosteroids to relieve edema.
For prevention, you need to try to avoid testicular injuries, treat all urogenital infections in time.
Diseases of the prostate gland
Males of all ages often suffer from prostatitis. This is an inflammation of the prostate gland, in which it increases, prevents urination and fecal excretion.
There is a pathology after an untreated infectious disease. Also provoking factor is stress, hypothermia, urolithiasis. In castrated males, prostatitis rarely occurs. The main cause of the disease is considered to be an imbalance of hormones.
The dog stands hunched over. Whines when you touch your stomach. Feels frequent urge to urinate. The act of defecation becomes difficult because the enlarged gland compresses the rectum.
Treatment is reduced to antibiotic therapy. Plus, homeopathy and herbal medicine are prescribed.
In addition to this disease, there are also prostatic hyperplasia, cysts, adenomas and abscesses. Since all these pathologies are difficult to treat conservatively and surgically, they are considered severe. Prevention is given special attention.
The most predisposed breeds are the German shepherd and its mestizos. The rest are much less likely to get sick.
For the purpose of prevention, it is necessary to protect the dog from hypothermia, from infection of the genitourinary tract. Since the chronic course of prostatitis is very difficult to treat, you need to treat acute inflammation in time. Be sure to periodically examine the dog for this group of diseases.
Bitches may have such a pathology as vaginitis. This is an inflammation of the vaginal mucosa. Caused by fungi or bacteria.
The causes of inflammation are mainly considered to be a decrease in the body’s resistance, vaginal injuries.
The disease is characterized by increased discharge from the vulva. The dog often licks it. The discharge may be colorless or yellowish.
Treatment is mostly local. These are ointments and antimicrobial liniments, solutions. Washing the vagina with antiseptic.
Prevention is reduced to the exclusion of injuries, stress, good nutrition and maintenance.
This pathology occurs in males of any age. It is characterized by a narrowing of the foreskin, when the penis cannot be removed from the preputial SAC. This is due to congenital malformations, neglected or untreated balanoposthitis.
Symptoms appear only when trying to mating a male with a female. This causes pain in the male.
Surgical treatment — removal of the foreskin. If this is not done in time, balanoposthitis may occur. The constant stagnation of urine and semen in the preputial SAC and the inability to wash it provokes this disease again and again.
Prevention comes to early diagnosis of diseases of the penis and the therapy.
Urogenital infections are mostly treatable. However, some of them are very difficult, even surgical methods do not save. These include cancer, prostate adenoma, and kidney failure.
Therefore, you need to protect your pet, feed it correctly, and exercise. Be sure to show it periodically to the veterinarian. This will allow you to identify hidden diseases and, perhaps, even save your pet.
Hi, my name is Mike Fletcher. I am 36 years old and a veterinarian at a veterinary clinic in Granby Colorado. And this is my blog about Pets. I hope I can answer your questions here.