The name “watchmen” speaks for itself. These service dogs must guard the territory. The most famous breeds of guard dogs will be considered in our article.
The breed was bred in the late 40s of the twentieth century in a special nursery located in the Moscow region. The Moscow watchdog is a domestic dog breed that belongs to the service and is officially recognized.
Characteristic features of the breed: strong, massive, mobile, with light movements and well-developed security and guard qualities. Since this is a domestic breed, it perfectly tolerates both summer heat and winter cold.
The standard provides the following mandatory characteristics: large stature, broad body, elongated body, bulky muscles and well developed. The legs are straight and parallel, the hind legs are set slightly wider than the front ones, the tail is set high and reaches the hock joint in length.
The head is massive, broad, and the forehead is convex. Has a good grip, but feels the distance: if an outsider moved away from the protected borders — falls silent, but remains alert.
These wonderful dogs live up to 15 years: they are very calm and have a strong nervous system. They have both good mental and excellent physical health.
Dogs with pronounced functions of a territory guard will get along well both in an apartment and in a private house, provided that the owner provides daily heavy physical activity. The Moscow watchtower needs constant communication with a person. If the owner of the animal provides him with a full life, he will get a great friend and a reliable guard.
Caucasian shepherd dog
Dog habitats are the zones of the Caucasus range, as well as the southern steppe regions of Russia.
The Caucasian shepherd is a large dog with a height above average. Strong, fast, smart dog. Differs in power and strength, movements — confident, easy, free. Requires socialization.
Caucasian shepherds are fussy, fearless and extremely distrustful of outsiders. However, an ill-bred Sheepdog can also be dangerous to its owner due to its huge size and dominant nature. Therefore, the General training course is mandatory.
Due to the nature of the dog (waywardness, tendency to leadership), there may be difficulties with training. The owner will need a firm, determined character to stop the development of negative traits even in puppy age.
- The Caucasian shepherd dog treats children well, but it is not recommended to leave a small child alone with the dog.
- The weight of males is 50 kg, the weight of bitches 45 pounds, height — 68 cm and 64 cm respectively. Life expectancy is 10-12 years.
- The shepherd has a massive backbone and well-developed muscles. This breed is ideal for protecting large territories. Preferably content in the yard in a spacious aviary.
- When kept on a chain or in cramped apartment conditions, the dog experiences stress, begins to get bored, and often barks out of business.
Central Asian shepherd dog
The shepherd dog has the highest security and protective qualities.
In the 30s of the last century, breeding work with the Central Asian shepherd dog began in Russia, then the USSR. It was planned to use the breed to protect important strategic military and civilian objects. But this use did not take root: the dog was recognized as wayward and unsuitable for mass use.
The breed of the Central Asian shepherd dog was recognized by the international cynological organization in 1989, but its other name “Alabai” is not officially fixed anywhere.
Sheepdogs are balanced, calm, not fussy. They have a stable psyche and phlegmatic disposition.
But the waywardness of the dog remained: only with stable contact of the shepherd with the owner and the approval of the owner’s training teams, the dog will work. A Sheepdog needs a leader, if the dog feels dominant, the pet’s character will become unmanageable.
In order to avoid negative changes in the pet’s behavior, it is recommended to entrust training to a trained specialist. The breed is characterized by low socialization. Sheepdogs are extremely distrustful of outsiders.
The Central Asian shepherd dog is not adapted to housing conditions. For its large size, a large territory with a spacious aviary is suitable: the dog requires a lot of physical activity and a long walk.
When kept on a chain, the dog experiences psychological stress, in addition, this affects the physical health of the pet — the muscles do not work intensively, they weaken, which can contribute to the development of diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
When protecting the territory, the shepherd will not attack unnecessarily, it does not give in to provocations. Only when there is a real threat to the owner, the dog attacks, everything that happens outside the territory is indifferent to it.
The shepherd treats children well, tries to take care of them and protect them.
The breed standard stipulates height at withers for males is from 70 cm, females — 65 cm, weight — 50 kgs and 40 kgs respectively. Life expectancy is 12-15 years.
Russian black Terrier
In the middle of the twentieth century, an army kennel located in the Moscow region began work on breeding a new breed intended for the protection of prisons and camps.
The change in the situation in the country, on the one hand, eliminated the service of animals in the police and army, and on the other hand, allowed the mass introduction of the breed. So, in 1955, the Russian black Terrier was shown at the VDNH (exhibition of achievements of the national economy), and in 1957 — at the Moscow exhibition of service dogs. Since then, dog breeders have been able to purchase a Russian black Terrier.
The breed turned out to be international: 17 breeds of dogs participated in the breeding of the Terrier. The main qualities laid down in the characteristics of the breed are a comfortable stay in our climatic conditions, subordination to one leader and excellent security qualities.
The Russian black Terrier was recognized by the international cynological organization in 1984.
The breed standard includes characteristics: weight males an average of 50 pounds during the growth of 66-72 cm, for females — and weighs 45-50 pounds growth 64-70 cm. Life expectancy is 10-11 years.
Terriers are physically hardy dogs that require daily long-term physical exertion and Jogging. Intensive work helps them maintain their working shape.
They need a mandatory course of training and socialization. Black Terriers have a strong character, so they obey only a firm and authoritative owner. A properly trained Terrier is a manageable dog in any situation.
The owner must be careful when walking with a Terrier in crowded places. This massive dog can, even unconsciously or at the slightest suspicion of danger to the owner, harm a stranger or a child, for example, push away, scare, drop.
The dog is very attached to the owner, friendly with children, but it is not recommended to leave the Terrier alone with the child, the dog does not like when its loyalty is abused.
In case of danger, the dog is capable of an instant reaction, has a strong grip, and when it is very excited, the owner will have to work hard to tear the pet’s jaws from the attacker.
The Russian black Terrier is nicknamed “black lightning”, which was received because of the lightning-fast reaction and jump, which gives the impression that the dog pushes off the ground with all four paws at the same time.
The development of the breed has changed the character of the Terrier to a more friendly one with the preservation of protective qualities and the ability to stand up for themselves and for the owner.
Thanks to the thick coat with a dense undercoat, Terriers live quietly in street booths with fenced spacious enclosures. In such conditions, Pets can move a lot and actively.
The East-European shepherd
This breed is well known from the movie “To me, Mukhtar!”.
The difficult history of its creation and preservation has been going on for more than half a century. Initially, the work of dog handlers was conceived as “our answer to the German shepherd”. The purposeful work of domestic specialists allowed us to create a breed of dog “East European shepherd”, characterized by a more massive size, endurance, balanced character and adapted to harsh climatic conditions.
With the recognition of the German shepherd by the international cynological organization in 1991, the breed of Eastern European dogs became illegal, as it was considered a subspecies.
But enthusiasts and lovers of the breed, who did not agree with this approach, continued to develop and improve the Eastern European shepherd. The result of hard work was the recognition of this breed in 2002 by the Russian cynological Federation.
The breed standard provides for the size of the male: height 66-76 centimeters, weight — 35-60 kilograms; females — height 62-72 centimeters, weight — 30-50 kilograms. Life expectancy is 12-15 years. The coat is of medium length with a thick undercoat.
The dog is large, active and physically strong with well-developed muscles. These animals are distinguished by a strong nervous system, strong immunity, and the ability to perform tasks in harsh climates and cold weather.
The breed was created to serve in the army, protect territories, work in the police, as well as search for chemical and narcotic substances. These dogs were also used as guide dogs for the visually impaired and guarded the state border.
Sheepdogs are well trained, especially if they are trained from a puppy’s age. When training, they are happy to demonstrate their obedience, do not try to dominate and show will.
The shepherd has a friendly character, but only with “his own” and becomes “fighting” at the slightest threat to the owner or family members.
She is friendly to children and likes to play with them.
Excellent characteristics and calm temperament allowed the Eastern European shepherd dog to gain popularity among people and as a pet.
The dog is very attached to its owner: smart, unpretentious, has the typical features of a defender. He is wary of outsiders, but does not show aggression unnecessarily.
Keeping a shepherd dog can be either in a spacious outdoor booth with a fenced enclosure, or in a city apartment. If the dog spent the first years of its life in an apartment, it will not be able to adapt to life on the street.
Each breed is interesting in its own way. When choosing a guard dog as a pet, be sure to remember that:
- all breeds require a special training course;
- guard dogs need daily active physical activity;
- the owner will be required to show a strong character and leadership qualities in the upbringing of the animal;
- socialization of dogs should begin at an early age and carefully monitor the grown-up dog when in crowded places, having accustomed it to a muzzle and a leash.