Poisoning And Injuries In Dogs: First Aid

Poisoning and injuries to Pets are a serious danger. Depending on the severity, the consequences for the pet’s health can be the most deplorable. The ability to correctly diagnose damage and provide emergency care can often save the pet’s health. The first minutes are especially important: in case of inactivity, there is a risk of death of the animal.

First aid measures for poisoning

If a pet is suspected of being poisoned, the first step is to understand and determine the nature of the toxic substance, as well as the way in which the poison entered the animal’s body: with food, through the lungs or skin. To determine the type of poisoning, you can check your pet for foreign odors, as well as vomit contents – undigested food with a pronounced specific smell. By determining the type of toxic substance, you can correctly help the injured four-legged friend.

So, here is a list of activities that are desirable to carry out as soon as possible when poisoning an animal:

  • Try to stop the entry of toxic substances into the pet’s body.
  • In case of food poisoning – cause vomiting or give emetic drugs from a home veterinary medicine Cabinet.
  • Immediately contact the veterinary clinic (or call a veterinarian at home).
  • Provide the animal with plenty of water to reduce the concentration of the toxic substance.
  • Already in the hospital, the veterinarian will reduce the concentration of harmful substances in the blood by injecting intravenous glucose solution and necessary medications.

To absorb the toxic solution from the gastrointestinal tract, you need to voluntarily or forcibly give the animal an adsorbent from the home veterinary first aid kit: activated carbon, burnt magnesia. Additionally, you can use a weak solution of potassium permanganate, it oxidizes toxic substances, makes them inactive.

To reduce the absorption of poisons into the walls of the stomach and esophagus, it is necessary to give the animal enveloping agents, such as a decoction of rice or Hercules. You can add a little fat. To remove all poisons from the body in a short time, the pet needs to drink a significant amount of water.

If traces of poison are seen on the body, then an effective way to remove it is to wash it off with running water.

After all urgent procedures, it is necessary to urgently show the dog to a specialist.

How to give a dog medicine

There are two ways to give medicine to a pet:

  • voluntarily. It is possible only if the dog has an appetite, i.e. the medicine is mixed with food. This technique of introducing medications does not cause any special difficulties. This method is suitable for feeding liquid emulsions, capsules, powders and tablets.
  • forcibly. This method can take place if the dog has no appetite. Also, if the tablets have an unpleasant smell or taste, the animal may refuse to swallow it. To give a sick animal medicine, you will need the help of another person: the owner grabs the muzzle with one hand, and with the other hand inserts the index and middle fingers between the cheek and the dog’s teeth on the right side, thus pulling part of the cheek. The assistant pours medicine mixed with water into the resulting collar hole. The volume of water should be equal to about one SIP. Thus, the pet’s swallowing reflex is triggered, and the medicine freely enters the stomach.

Emergency actions for various types of injuries

Correctly help the injured dog can only be after identifying the cause of the injury and quickly eliminate it. The most common types of injuries are:

  • the mechanical effect;
  • electric current;
  • injury;
  • exposure to alkalis or acids.

The primary task of the owner in providing pre – medical care is to identify the cause of the injury and eliminate it. So, if you are exposed to an electric current, you must immediately turn off the power supply. In case of overheating, remove the heat source and move the animal to a dark, cool place. In the presence of bleeding – stop the blood, with chemical burns with alkalis or acids – eliminate their influence. If the dog has lost consciousness, emergency artificial respiration is required.

Depending on the type of injury, you should follow the following recommendations for first aid:

  • Limb injuries and bruises. On the bruised swollen place, it is necessary to apply cold, to provide the animal with rest. To calm the pain state of the animal, it is allowed to use analgin or other analgesic.
  • If the dog has lost consciousness as a result of a head injury – you can not move it and try to Wake it up. Gently place the animal on its side and remove the collar and muzzle. The tongue should be stuck out, only in this case the dog will not choke on vomit. On the head of the affected animal, you need to apply a cold compress or ice wrapped in a loose cloth. Call a veterinarian immediately.
  • If you lose your breath, lack of pulse and heartbeat – you urgently need to give the dog artificial respiration. Be sure to call a veterinarian or take the dog to the veterinary clinic yourself. If you still need to move the dog, do it on a hard surface with maximum care. Artificial respiration is performed as follows: the dog is lying on its stomach, its front legs stretched out, its tongue sticking out. The owner, kneeling on the floor, presses the sides of the chest with his hands. Pressing with force on the dog’s chest for about 3 seconds, the exhalation occurs. When the pressure decreases, an inhalation occurs. This procedure is performed 14 times in one minute. The duration of artificial respiration continues until self-ventilation is installed.
  • In case of a fracture, the owner must apply a splint to the dog at the site of the injury. As improvised tools, you can use any dense material for the tire: a ruler, pencil, cardboard, sticks. A properly applied splint tightly fixes the fracture and protects the soft tissue from injury to bone fragments. Analgin and pyramidone are suitable as painkillers (0.1 g — 0.2 g – the exact dose depends on the weight of the animal).
  • When stretching the ligaments, the dog needs to apply ice to the damaged area. Apply a tight bandage and provide the animal with complete rest. After providing pre – medical care, you should contact the clinic for specialized help.
  • For bleeding, first aid depends on the type and location of the injury. The greatest danger to life is venous and arterial bleeding. To stop the blood, apply a tourniquet (belt, cloth) above the wound site and contact the veterinarian as soon as possible. It is also allowed to apply a cold compress to the injury site.


For quick and effective assistance to the dog, you need to know the algorithm for providing first aid. It must be remembered that the first emergency care is of great importance, because it is from the first minutes that the further condition of the animal depends, and in some cases the life of the pet.