Cats, no less than people, are susceptible to diseases of the teeth and gums. One of the most common dental diseases in our younger brothers is stomatitis.
Causes of the disease
Stomatitis in veterinary medicine is understood as a group of inflammatory diseases of the mucous membrane, tongue, and parotid areas. Pathology can occur in two forms-primary and secondary.
Factors that provoke primary stomatitis include:
- non-compliance with oral hygiene;
- injuries to the oral mucosa, for example, when using tubular bones;
- eating too hot or cold food;
- mucosal burns caused by contact with aggressive substances, detergents, etc.
Among the causes of secondary stomatitis, veterinarians distinguish:
- viruses that have entered the body;
- hormonal disorders;
- diabetes mellitus;
- infectious diseases.
Stomatitis can develop in any cat, regardless of age and gender, the most susceptible to inflammatory processes of the oral cavity are representatives of short-nosed breeds (Persians, exotics). This is due to the specific structure of the muzzle.
The main symptoms
At the initial stage, stomatitis in a cat is almost impossible to detect, since it is asymptomatic. If you are concerned about something in the behavior of your pet, you can examine its mouth. Edematous, red, inflamed mucosa, ulcers — a serious reason to take the animal to the veterinary clinic for examination.
Another characteristic sign that suggests stomatitis is hypersalivation. The cat drool profusely, the fur on the muzzle, chest and even stomach is constantly wet, which gives the animal an unkempt, disheveled appearance.
Inflammation and ulcers give the pet considerable discomfort, and you can notice that he constantly washes, rubs his paw on the muzzle, as if trying to get rid of a foreign object.
The behavior of a four-legged pet is changing. He becomes sluggish, inactive, drinks a lot and eats little, refusing even his favorite treats.
As the disease progresses, the pet’s condition worsens. They can not help but notice the strong smell of rotten meat from the mouth, weight loss due to complete refusal of food, an increase in the lymph nodes under the lower jaw, the release of blood and pus along with saliva, swelling and puffiness of the lips. In severe cases, the temperature may rise, teeth may fall out.
Diagnostics in the veterinary clinic
To make a diagnosis, the veterinarian conducts a comprehensive examination, which includes, first of all, a visual examination to determine the nature and degree of inflammation of the cat’s mouth mucosa. Next, the specialist prescribes taking blood and urine tests, flushing from the oral cavity, etc. The treatment regimen is developed individually, depending on the stage of the disease, age and General condition of the animal.
Treatment can be conservative (medication), surgical, or combined.
Surgical treatment is performed in severe cases, when the mucosa has undergone destructive changes without the possibility of recovery. Gangrenous areas will interfere with the healing of healthy tissues. Often, a specialist also has to remove teeth (for autoimmune stomatitis), choosing this method as the only one that can save the life of an animal.
The combined method of treatment involves surgical cleaning of the oral cavity, removal of certain teeth that can no longer be saved, and drug therapy.
Medical care includes the following steps:
- cleaning the mucous membranes of the mouth from the signs of disintegration of tissue, pus;
- elimination of the focus of infection (with secondary stomatitis);
- healing of affected areas of the mucosa;
- strengthening the immune system.
For disinfection of the oral cavity and treatment of ulcers directly, drugs such as Lugol spray, or Lugol solution with glycerin, Chlorhexidine, Dentavedin gels, Metrogil, Protargol solution are most often used. Tramel.
Important: veterinarians prefer not to use rotokan, as it provokes hypersalivation.
Antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial drugs, as well as antibiotics are used to eliminate infection and relieve inflammation.
As for the forecasts, they are mostly favorable. If the appeal to the veterinary clinic was timely, and the treatment was competent and consistent, then it is possible to achieve a complete cure of the animal.
What to do at home
The owner must clearly follow the instructions of the veterinarian. It is forbidden to independently prescribe medications, increase or decrease their dosage! Some pet owners prefer not to go to a veterinary clinic and treat their Pets with folk remedies.
Use decoctions of medicinal herbs (sage, chamomile, oak bark, etc.) is not forbidden, but they should be used as an addition to traditional treatment.
Such a serious disease as stomatitis requires adjustments in nutrition. The diet should be enriched with nutrients and consist of liquid and semi-liquid food. Chicken and beef broths, mashed soups, and mashed porridges are ideal.
It should be noted that a weakened cat, experiencing pain and discomfort when eating, will refuse to eat.
In this case, feed should be forced, introducing food into the mouth with a syringe. You need to act carefully so that the animal does not drown.
Any disease can be prevented, and stomatitis is no exception. It is enough to exclude or minimize the causes that provoke diseases: do not feed the cat with sharp bones, do not give too cold or hot food, regularly brush your teeth, hide away all dangerous household solutions that can cause burns to the mucous membrane.
To prevent infections and viruses from entering the body, it is necessary to limit the pet’s contact with stray animals, and to carry out timely vaccination and deworming.