Diseases of the genitourinary system in cats are quite common and often lead to the development of serious complications up to the death of the animal. To ease his condition and save his life, a special operation is used — urethrostomy.
What is urethrostomy?
This surgical intervention is the removal of a wide part of the cat’s urethra through the wall of the peritoneum or perineum. It is performed for the free removal of concretions and sand from the genitourinary tract of a sick animal or is necessary in case of injury to the urinary canal.
Indications for performing the operation
Surgical intervention is necessary in the following cases:
- In the formation of narrowing (stricture) of the urethra after prolonged or frequent urethritis.
- When the urethra is blocked by concretions (stones), sand, or a neoplasm (malignant or benign).
- With a weak tone of the bladder muscles in the animal.
- Due to perforation of the urethra wall during catheterization.
- If the previously performed stoma has closed and become impassable for urine.
In the vast majority of cases, the reason for performing the operation is the formation of kidney stones, their removal through the urinary tract and blocking them with concretions.
Preparing for the intervention
Before performing the operation, the cat is examined at the veterinary clinic. The sooner the owners ask for help, the less risk of losing the animal. Prolonged violation of the outflow of urine will negatively affect the overall health of the cat and may lead to the development of acute kidney failure.
The veterinarian will send his tailed patient for the following tests and tests:
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity.
- The analysis of urine.
- Blood analysis (the General and biochemistry).
- Radiography of the urinary tract using a contrast agent. Helps you detect where the urethra is blocked. Performed again after the operation to determine its effectiveness.
If necessary, prior to performing surgery, rehabilitation of concomitant diseases is performed.
Conducting the procedure
After an ultrasound and x-ray, the doctor clearly knows where the concretion is located, or the place of pathological narrowing of the urethra. The urethra is washed with an antiseptic solution, then a catheter is inserted. If the cat was not sterilized before the disease, then this procedure is performed before the operation.
If the animal’s bladder is filled with rocks and / or sand, it is opened and the contents removed. If the intervention is not associated with the formation of concretions, this stage is skipped.
An incision is made so that the surgeon can access a wide area of the cat’s urethra. After that, the sexual organ is removed, a wide part of the urethra is removed to the perineum or through the abdominal wall, and fixed to the skin.
After surgery, infection of the newly created urethra is possible, so it is very important to observe hygiene and antiseptics. If the cat tries to lick or tear the seams, they put on an “Elizabethan collar”.
Sometimes a discharge containing blood may appear from the new opening, but this is within the normal range.
Usually, after the procedure, the animal recovers quickly enough: in about 15-30 days. Sometimes urinary incontinence occurs, but this is a rare complication.
In that case, if will be seen clogging the holes, it gently beirout. If it doesn’t help, repeat the operation.
After the end of the intervention, the cat is transferred to the hospital for a day or two. The animal is put on a catheter for several days (up to 4 days). They give him painkillers, antibiotics for a week, put droppers with solutions. If the cat is in good health, they are allowed to take it home for rehabilitation.
During this time, he is put on diapers, which are changed at least every 8 hours and after emptying the intestines, the necessary hygiene procedures are carried out, the opening of the urethra is treated with an antiseptic.
The stoma and canal are washed with chlorhexidine and special ointments are applied to prevent the development of the inflammatory process.
The animal is provided with peace, warmth, protection from bright light and unnecessary attention, especially if there are small children in the house. The veterinarian will give recommendations on feeding and watering the patient, tell you how to behave in case of changes in his health.
If the cat is still unable to urinate properly after a successful operation, it is possible that there are stones or dense coarse sand left in its bladder that have not been removed. In this case, repeated urethrostomy will be required.
Also, the reason may be the closure of the stoma. In this case, the veterinarian can put the catheter on for a few more days in order for the hole to heal and the stitches to heal.
If the situation does not improve in a few days, you will have to resort to a second operation. The occurrence of complications is associated with the age of the animal, the complexity of the disease, and the presence of other health problems.
Basically, in the absence of deviations from the normal course of healing, the rehabilitation process proceeds smoothly, and the pet quickly recovers. He gets used to the new state of Affairs and completely returns to normal, familiar life.