In recent years, the veterinary clinic is increasingly receiving cats with pathological conditions of the urinary system. The largest share of diseases is caused by inflammation of the lower urinary tract, which eventually turn into a chronic form.
In advanced cases, with complete obstruction of the urethra and the development of complications, only surgical treatment or urethrostomy can be an effective solution to the problem.
Urethrostomy in cats-surgical treatment aimed at the formation of a new opening of the urethra. Surgical intervention allows you to get a significantly shortened, straight urethra, which promotes the passage of small stones and sand. As a result of the operation, blockages of the urethra are prevented, and urination in the cat becomes almost painless.
How to prepare a cat for surgical treatment?
Urethrostomy in a cat is performed only after a complete examination of the animal, clinical studies and laboratory tests. In particular a few days before surgical treatment is performed:
- ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity;
- radiography of the urinary system;
- General urinalysis;
- biochemical and General blood analysis.
A non-castrated cat must be castrated. Before surgery, the animal’s urethra is washed and the bladder is catheterized, stones and sand are removed from the space of the bladder. Before performing surgical treatment, it is strictly forbidden to give the pet food to avoid complications.
How to perform surgery
Elective surgery is performed only after anesthesia. The animal is fixed on the operating table in the position “lying down, on its back, pelvic limbs stretched back”.
At the beginning of the operation, an elliptical skin incision is made in the area of the foreskin and scrotum. Excised cat genitals are separated from each other and removed. The penis is also separated from the adipose tissue and removed.
After that, the sciatic-cavernous and sciatic-urethral muscles are dissected alternately. If there is heavy bleeding from a blood vessel, measures are taken to stop blood flow. Next, the muscle that pulls the cat’s penis back is dissected, and the urethra, which is located above the catheter, is cut. Then stitches are made.
The first suture is applied in the proximal corner of the wound from the outside in and from the inside out using a special technology. The urethra stitches are sewn to the skin along the entire length of the incision. Great attention is paid to the uniform tension of the wound edges when applying sutures.
Then the penis is coagulated, or bandaged and separated. Reverse sutures are applied to the proximal corner of the urethral wound. As a result of the operation, a formed stoma is formed in the wide part of the urethra and a bougie is performed.
What could be the consequences
- Bleeding. Small spotting, as a rule, does not threaten the health and life of a pet. In case of heavy bleeding, surgery is not required.
- Violation of urination. It is important to understand that the operation can not completely cure the pathology of the urinary system. Therefore, there is a high probability of dysuria. The main causes of urination disorders can be the presence of bacteria, sand and small stones in the urine.
- The discrepancy between the joints. After urethrostomy, the animal may develop puffiness and redness of the perineum. These symptoms most often occur due to urine entering the subcutaneous space, as a result of which the sutures may disperse. In this case, repeated surgical treatment may be required.
- Anuria. After surgery, cats may not urinate during the day. This phenomenon is considered normal if they were not fed after treatment. But you should be wary if the urine is not released from the bladder for more than two days.
- Narrowing of the urethra (stricture). The most common consequence may be overgrowth of the urethra due to the formation of tears in the urinary canal during catheterization of a sick animal. In this case, you may need to repeat the procedure.
- Purulent inflammation. If the operation was performed by a veterinarian using non-sterile instruments, the risk of infection is likely. In addition, the consequences in the form of abscess formation may occur due to the lack of professionalism of the veterinarian who damaged the rectum during surgery.
How to care for a cat after surgery
Cat care after surgical treatment consists in following certain recommendations of the veterinarian-surgeon. If the procedure is successful, hormonal and antibacterial therapy is prescribed, as well as local treatment with ointments and dietary nutrition.
With successful operations, the stitches are removed on day 12. If there is swelling, swelling, redness, seam discrepancies, or other problems, the stitches may be removed later.
- Antibacterial therapy. To avoid the consequences and repeated urethrostomy, antibiotics are prescribed. The dosage is determined in each case individually, taking into account the age and weight of the animal. The rehabilitation course is on average up to 7 days.
- Hormone therapy. After surgery, cats are prescribed hormonal medications to relieve puffiness. The most effective are dexamethasone or prednisone in the form of injections. The course of hormonal recovery takes up to 3 days, depending on the condition of the sick animal.
- Local treatment with ointments. In the first days after bougie, an ointment (for example, mastiet Forte) is applied to the operated area for 1-2 days. In the following days on the subject area applied in a 0.05% solution of chlorhexidine digluconate and mucoangin. Suture treatment is performed daily 2 times a day. The course of local treatment is on average up to 2 weeks.
- Diet food. To restore strength to operated Pets, it is important to eat properly and limit movement. It is necessary to choose the right food and not to load the cat’s body.
If your pet has various pathologies of the urinary system that are not subject to medication, surgery is simply inevitable. Timely urethrostomy in a veterinary clinic will allow you to maintain excellent health of the cat for many years.