Glycemia in a Dog: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Hypoglycemia is usually understood as a pathology of the body caused by a critical decrease in blood sugar levels. This disease is diagnosed not only in humans, but also in dogs. The most susceptible to hypoglycemia are adult animals with low body weight (decorative breeds), as well as puppies. This is due to the intensive metabolism that occurs in the body of small Pets.


Hypoglycemia is caused by two factors — a decrease in glucose production or too rapid absorption. Regardless of what exactly caused the changes — production or disposal — they are always caused by negative processes occurring in the dog’s body.

The development of hypoglycemia against the background of reduced glucose production is promoted by liver pathology and endocrine system malfunctions (violation of metabolic processes in liver cells, portisystem shunt, Adisson’s disease, etc.).

Rapid assimilation of an organic compound is possible with prolonged fasting, excessive consumption of sugar and products containing it, and excessive amounts of insulin used to treat diabetes.

In addition, a sharp drop in body temperature, stress, sudden correction of feeding, unbalanced nutrition, and infections can cause hypoglycemia.

If this disease is diagnosed in puppies, then the cause of its development is a lack or absence of glucose in the mother’s milk, multiple pregnancy of a bitch, the birth of premature offspring.


The clinical picture of the pathology depends on the form. The initial stage is characterized by signs such as apathy, drowsiness, chills, loss of appetite, increased salivation, gastrointestinal disorders, problems with coordination. It is difficult to diagnose hypoglycemia, since the symptoms are similar to other diseases.

In the acute form, the manifestations are already more vivid: fainting, paralysis of the limbs, convulsions. With a strong decrease in sugar levels, the dog has muscle twitching, tremor.

In severe cases, hypoglycemic coma occurs.

Diagnosis of pathology

To make an accurate diagnosis, the veterinarian needs to collect anamnesis, as well as conduct a number of clinical and laboratory studies. The main diagnostic method for hypoglycemia is to determine the blood glucose content. The lower limit has an indicator of 3.4 mmol/l, hyperglycemic conditions occur when the indicator is higher than 6.2 mmol/l.

The treatment regimen is developed individually in each case, depending on the state of health of the dog. To do this, the specialist performs an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs, a General blood and urine test, a biochemical blood test, and a bacterioscopic examination of secretions (to exclude infection and urolithiasis).

First aid

An attack of glycemia always looks scary, and few dog owners, especially inexperienced ones, know what to do in such cases. Meanwhile, it is very easy to provide first aid at home, even a novice breeder can cope with simple and simple actions. You can make a four-legged pet subcutaneous injection of glucose, give a solution or just RUB it into the gums.

For lack of glucose, you can just give your dog water with added sugar or honey.

The pet, of course, will not want to drink sweet water and will resist manipulation. In this case, it is necessary to open its mouth and pour the liquid forcibly. At the same time, you need to act very carefully so that the dog does not choke.

For the procedure to be successful, it is advisable to find an assistant to keep the dog. To relieve the attack, you need to give a drink every 5 hours. If the animal is unconscious, the procedure is prohibited, as this may lead to aspiration into the respiratory system.

Vitamin is used to normalize heart activity B and carboxylase.

Further treatment is primarily aimed at stabilizing glucose levels and eliminating the factors that caused the pathology.

Prevention measures

Any disease is easier to prevent than to treat. This fully applies to the of hypoglycemia. You can prevent pathology, but you need to take a responsible attitude to the maintenance and feeding of a pet. Many owners feed the dog food from their table, do not control meals, and abuse treats.

In no case should you give your pet sweets (sweets, cookies, sugar). Such products cause great harm to the animal’s health. They cause hypoglycemia and create dangerous prerequisites for the development of diabetes.

The owner is required to create the most comfortable conditions for the dog and try to reduce the amount of stress. Emotional stress can be caused by anything from changing your place of residence to visiting a veterinary clinic.

If a newborn puppy does not gain weight, lags behind in physical development from their peers, then for the owner this is a reason to be wary and seek advice from a veterinarian. Responsible breeders will never sell such a baby to people who do not have sufficient experience in keeping Pets.

At least up to 4 months the puppy is under observation, after reaching this age, attacks of hypoglycemia, as a rule, are eliminated.

To ensure that newborn dogs do not have attacks of hypoglycemia, preventive measures are also carried out in relation to a pregnant bitch. The dog should eat well, get the necessary amount of vitamins and trace elements. Great importance is attached to quality care and sanitary hygiene.

In any case, you should not neglect scheduled examinations in a veterinary clinic. Thus, the most common cause of hypoglycemia is liver pathology. The earlier the problem is identified, the higher the chances of avoiding serious consequences for the pet’s health.