The appearance of a Doberman makes a double impression: on the one hand, it admires strength and grace, on the other — it is alarming, because it looks impressive and intimidating. Representatives of this breed are the smartest animals, endowed with high intelligence, excellent working qualities. From time immemorial, Dobermans have helped people, protecting their lives and property.
Origin of the breed
Doberman — one of the few breeds, the origin of which is almost beyond doubt. It appeared at the end of the XIX century. The name of the dog is due to Friedrich Doberman, who wanted to bring out the ideal service breed, characterized by malice, fearlessness and endurance.
Initially, however, the breed was called differently — the Thuringian Pinscher, and only after the death of the Doberman received the name Doberman Pinscher.
For mating, the ancestors of Rottweilers (“butcher” dogs), German Pinscher, Greyhound, Beauceron, great Dane and other breeds were used. Exact data can not be called, since breeding books were not kept. However, breeding work was not successful, as the dogs were characterized by excessive excitability and uncontrollability. Outwardly, the first Dobermans looked like lightweight Rottweilers.
The first exhibition in which the Doberman Pinscher participated was held in 1987 in Erfurt, and in 1899 the first club of lovers of this breed was established in apold.
In 1949, due to numerous disputes over the origin of dogs, Dobermans-Pinscher turned into Dobermans, removing the prefix “Pinscher”from the name.
Today, Dobermans are actively used in the police, search and rescue, search, protective guard, customs services, in short, wherever their lightning-fast reaction, fearlessness and special flair are required. By the way, the dog Clubs — a legend of the detective police of tsarist Russia — participated in solving 1,500 crimes!
The breed standard
The appearance of Dobermans does not have the slightest hint of heaviness or infantile. These are muscular, athletic dogs that exude strength and power. According to the standard, the height at the withers of males is up to 72 cm, bitches — up to 68 cm; weight is 45 and 35, respectively.
- The head is wedge-shaped.
- The muzzle is broad, with tight-fitting lips. The forehead is flat.
- Teeth are white, with a scissor bite. A characteristic “smile” that opens the molars is required.
- Eyes medium size, dark. With brown and ash color, they can have a light shade. The look is tenacious, wary, alert.
- Ears set high, erect, cropped.
- Withers high, long, well developed.
- The neck is dry and muscular.
- The back is strong, straight, and the lumbar region is slightly convex.
- The thorax is oval, reaching to the elbows, and moderately broad. The belly is retracted, forming a beautiful line in the lower part.
- Limbs straight, hind legs with good angles.
- The tail is thin, long, and set high.
The coat is short, hard, adjacent to the skin hair to hair — “shell”. No undercoat. Among the acceptable colors are brown and tan and black.
Health, typical diseases
Dobermans, despite the active breeding work that was carried out in relation to them, have good health and not so many genetic diseases. The average life span of this breed is 13-16 years.
Dobermans, as a rule, do not suffer from diseases characteristic of service dogs. Metabolic disorders, epilepsy, and ophthalmic pathologies are rarely diagnosed in them. Heritable abnormalities can be attributed:
- hip and elbow dysplasia;
- intermittent claudication (prostit);
- Wobbler syndrome (chronic dislocations of the cervical vertebrae, dislocations, subluxations);
- Willebrand-Jurgens syndrome (blood clotting disorder due to platelet pathology);
- hypothyroidism (disruption of the thyroid gland due to a lack of hormones).
Dobermans sometimes have cardiomyopathy (pathology of the heart muscle that has lost its tone). Main symptoms: decreased exercise tolerance, cough, bluish skin, lethargy. The disease can occur in acute and chronic form. In the first case, the risks of death are high, for the second — deterioration of the animal’s condition.
In addition, representatives of this breed are at risk, subject to deadly pathologies — inversion of the intestinal loop, torsion of the stomach. The disease is characterized by a displacement of part of the organ, its incorrect position due to sudden movement while running or in class.
Tissues deprived of blood circulation die, leading to sepsis and death. A sad outcome can be prevented only in cases of timely surgical intervention.
We should also mention the vicious type, subject to genetic mutation. The white variety of Dobermans that does not meet the standard has a whole bunch of genetic diseases, among which photophobia, melanoma only open a depressing list.
Needless to say, the reputation of Dobermans is not flattering: angry, quarrelsome, with an unbalanced temperament. However, this opinion is not entirely true. The breed is not prone to unmotivated anger, attacks on people and animals. Breeders purposefully worked to soften the character of the Doberman, improve its socialization and consolidate a number of qualities such as observation, endurance, and loyalty to man.
Education, discipline training from an early age and competent training will help to form a healthy mind in a dog. Trained Dobermans follow commands strictly — the need to realize their service potential is inherent in them at the genetic level. By the way, in some kennels, a prerequisite for buying a puppy is that the owner passes special UGS courses (managed city dog).
Dobermans are very attached to their owners and are constantly looking for contact, miss them, which is expressed in endless barking and howling. In order not to annoy the neighbors, the dog must be taught to calmly tolerate the absence of home. Unconditionally recognize the person who is considered a leader, but are friendly and sociable with all family members.
The attitude towards children is rather neutral, but it is not recommended to leave the Doberman alone with the kids, since the dog patiently endures all the childish fun and can turn into an aggressive animal in an instant.
Dobermans are wary of strangers, and in some cases may show aggression. For example, an outsider should not tempt fate and try to pet the dog. Most likely, the dog will trigger an innate protective instinct, which can lead to an incident. Being in the company of a Doberman, you should never forget about his lightning-fast reaction, excitability and desire to protect the territory entrusted to him and himself from danger at any cost.
How to choose a puppy
Choosing a Doberman puppy is a responsible matter. It is advisable to make a purchase in a kennel with a good reputation, where the dog will be given a puppy metric, provide information about parents, inform about vaccinations, feeding features.
Also you can try your luck on the mono-breeds dog shows to talk with breeders and see the dogs. You can buy a puppy there inexpensively, since the breed is not very popular, respectively, the price even for high-quality litters is quite adequate.
Prices for purebred puppies range from 20,000 to 90,000 rubles. A baby without documents can be purchased for 10 thousand rubles, for example, on the market or through an ad on the Internet, but in this case you can not be sure that the puppy is healthy.
When choosing a puppy, pay attention to its behavior and appearance. It should be energetic, mobile and inquisitive, moderately well-fed, with a healthy shiny coat and clean eyes.
Caring for a Doberman is not easy, and the main difficulties relate not to bathing and combing, but to proper planning of physical activity. A small Doberman should not be overloaded with exercises — ligaments and joints will suffer, but it is also impossible to let him do nothing for his own good. Loads should be regular, and the pace increases gradually.
A good solution is to engage in some kind of sports with your pet- running, skiing, Cycling. Smart and hardy dog will be happy to run next to you, not feeling tired and enjoying spending time with the owner.
Dobermans do not tolerate cold, dampness, dirt, so for the cold season, you need to buy the pet appropriate clothing — a thick raincoat, insulated overalls, and in severe frosts — even shoes. If your dog has cropped ears, then he will need a cap, otherwise the thin tips will freeze and fall off.
It is a well-known fact that Dobermans, even well-bred and trained ones, react very violently to different sounds. Even an unexpected pop that makes an umbrella open, what can we say about the explosion of a firecracker, can lead a dog into confusion and make it run wherever you look. That is why in public places a Doberman should be kept on a leash, a muzzle is mandatory.
Another problem is the curiosity of Dobermans, which is expressed in damage to the owner’s property. They are interested in literally everything — from shoes to furniture, so attempts to taste a thing should immediately be strictly suppressed. A bored dog needs to be provided with as many toys as possible so that he can chew them freely.
It is not recommended to keep a Doberman on the street. This may lead to loss of contact with the entire family, which is undesirable. If you plan to keep a pet in an apartment, then be prepared to fight molting. Short and tough hair falls off the dog constantly, and you will see it everywhere.
Comb the dog at least three times a week, during the molting period — a couple of times a day. If you train your pet to this procedure from the earliest childhood, then, as an adult, it will be happy to substitute its sides and back to the comb.
You should bathe your pet as needed, wipe your eyes daily, and brush your ears and teeth once a week.
Pros and cons of the breed
If you need a good watchman, a reliable guard, and you are ready to devote a lot of time to the dog, then you can be sure that the Doberman is exactly the breed that you need.
The advantages of Dobermans can be attributed:
- a great eye;
- learning rate;
- loyalty to the owner;
- good health.
Among the disadvantages — abundant molting, the need to purchase warm clothes, a low threshold of excitability.