Bleeding in Dogs: Types, Causes and First Aid

Injuries, bruises and wounds are common in dogs. Sometimes with serious injuries, open wounds occur, which, if improperly and untimely treatment, can get infected. The task of the host is to stop the blood and protect the damaged area from the penetration of harmful microorganisms. Further assistance will depend on the nature of the injury and is provided at a veterinary clinic.

Types of bleeding in dogs

There are the following types of bleeding:

Capillary

In this way the blood oozes from the whole of the damaged surface, but is not abundant. This bleeding does not pose a danger to the animal’s life and is eliminated very quickly, even without assistance. At home, the owner can easily stop the blood by simply pressing a sterile bandage to the wound;

Venous

In this case, the blood has a dark color and flows out of the damaged area. To eliminate such bleeding, it is necessary to wrap a solid object in sterile gauze, attach it to the wound and fix it firmly with a bandage. Also, the owner of the dog can apply a tourniquet above the injury site. But it must be remembered that with insufficient pressure, venous bleeding will not stop and can only increase. If the dog has no pulse in the injured limb, then the tourniquet is applied correctly. Injuries to the jugular veins are particularly dangerous, as they lead to an air embolism;

Arterial

The blood has a bright scarlet color, spurts from the wound, with characteristic pulse tremors. This type of bleeding can only be stopped with a tourniquet. From improvised means will fit: a Trouser belt, a collar, a leash, a handkerchief. In winter, the harness can be held for about an hour, in the summer months – 30 minutes. If during this period of time you were not able to deliver your pet to the vet, you should loosen the tourniquet for 3 minutes. The tourniquet causes tissue hypoxia, so if possible, replace it with a tight pressure bandage.

In all types of bleeding, it is mandatory to apply a cold compress to the wound for half an hour. Cold should be applied several times, because it slows down the inflammatory processes.

If the bleeding begins in the internal organs, it is called internal or cavity, which is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • cold limbs;
  • rapid heart rate;
  • dilated pupils;
  • pale mucous membranes.

Internal bleeding requires immediate surgical treatment.

Common locations of bleeding in dogs

Below we will look at some of the most common localizations of bleeding:

Bleeding from the nasal cavity

If there is a violation of the walls of blood vessels, during a bruise or injury, nasal bleeding occurs. It can be short-term and long-lasting up to several days. In the latter case, it leads to anemia of the animal. Blood flows in drops or trickles from the nasal cavity. It may stop temporarily, but then reappear;

When the gums and teeth are affected

Injuries in the oral cavity lead to tooth loss and heavy bleeding. By the nature of the flow – depends on the size of the affected area;

Damage to the eyelids

This localization of the injury is not dangerous for the dog, but it can lead to scarring, and this is already fraught with eversion of the eyelid and other visual impairments. Eyelid wounds are accompanied by skin, cartilage, or muscle damage. The most important thing is to protect the dog from contamination and infection in the open affected area;

Uterine bleeding

Occurs in females after a period of estrus, i.e., abundant blood flow begins. And also occur after childbirth, and can last up to 12 weeks. The danger is a large blood loss, and, as a result, the development of anemia in the animal. In case of serious heavy blood loss you should immediately show the dog to the veterinarian;

Blood in the dog’s stool

The appearance of blood in the dog’s feces may be due to damage to the rectal mucosa, or solid feces with undigested bone remains. In old Pets, the appearance of blood may be associated with the presence of hemorrhoids, cracks, and cancers. When the feces of an animal becomes dark, this already means intestinal bleeding, it requires surgery;

Blood in the dog’s urine

Injuries to the bladder, kidneys, and urinary organs lead to bleeding. However, if the dog’s urine has a reddish tinge, this may be a feature of feeding, and not bleeding. For example, the animal ate beets or carrots. Or due to taking certain medications, the urine has changed its natural color. The main signs of blood in the urine include frequent and painful urination.
However, in some cases, bleeding is not accompanied by any signs and does not cause concern to the dog;

Minor wounds, bites, and cuts

Heal on the dog quickly, without outside interference. Scalped extensive wounds, when large flaps of skin hang out, are best sewn up. In such cases, you should contact a veterinary clinic as soon as possible to avoid infection of the wound.

First aid

Starting to provide first aid to the injured dog, it is necessary to assess its General condition. Eliminate the cause of injury and bleeding. Apply a tight bandage or splint if a fracture is suspected. If necessary, perform artificial respiration to the animal.
First aid for various bleeding conditions in dogs is described below:

Bleeding from the nose

Insert a cotton swab into the nostril, previously moistened with a solution of Galazoline. Apply a cold compress to your nose for half an hour. Vasoconstrictor agents are not recommended for use for more than a week, because then they cause a reverse reaction. Intramuscularly put Vikasol 2ml or vitamin C 5ml. If you can’t stop the blood yourself, contact your doctor;

Bleeding in the mouth

Roll a cotton ball and place it between the dog’s jaws at the point of injury. To fix it, wrap the dog’s muzzle with a bandage or put on a muzzle;

Wounds of the eyelids

It is necessary to treat the affected area with a 1% solution of diamond greens, apply a bandage and deliver the pet to the veterinary clinic. If the eyelid is partially torn off, you can not remove the skin yourself. If the eyelid is completely torn off, it is necessary to deliver the dog and the torn piece of skin to the veterinarian for possible sewing of the eyelid. In the latter case, it is forbidden to wash the wound with any solutions;

Uterine bleeding

If the female has blood after estrus, then it is worth giving her a decoction of nettle. Prepare it simply: a glass of boiling water 1st.l. herbs. Give an infusion of 50 ml three times a day. Also, the animal can be watered with calcium gluconate 2 tablets three times a day. Intramuscularly, you can enter Vikasol 2ml.
After childbirth, bleeding is associated with insufficient contraction of the uterine muscles. In this case, together with a decoction of nettle, you can give the dog a reducing agent pituitrin 4 UNITS subcutaneously twice a day;

Blood in the stool

It can be eliminated by establishing nutrition and normalizing bowel function. If there is prolonged bleeding, you should show the animal to a doctor. Preventive measures include checkups at a veterinary clinic and taking a balanced nutritious food that eliminates the appearance of constipation and cracks;

Blood in the urine

It is eliminated by applying a cold compress to the lumbar region or lower part of the peritoneum, as well as providing rest to the pet. Consult a specialist to avoid serious damage;

Bites, cuts, and minor wounds

First aid is to treat the wound as quickly as possible. If possible, trim the dog’s fur in the area of the wound. First of all, you need to wash the wound. Treat the edges of the wound with an antiseptic, such as chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, and Miramistin. If there is no antiseptic at hand, use clean water. You should bandage the wound and prevent it from being licked by your pet. Adequately assess the depth and width of the wound. If it is more than 2 cm, you need to contact a veterinary clinic.

First aid for heavy bleeding is critical for the animal’s health. Therefore, measures should be taken as quickly as possible, especially when it comes to venous and arterial bleeding. Knowing the types of bleeding and how to provide first aid can save the life of a four-legged friend.