Avitaminosis and Hypovitaminosis In Dogs: Causes And Types

Vitamins in the dog’s diet play an important role. They help to increase the intensity of physiological processes, increase the body’s immune strength, and promote faster recovery from diseases. The lack or insufficient amount of nutrients leads to a violation of important vital functions of a four-legged friend.

Causes of beriberi and hypovitaminosis

With an incorrectly composed and monotonous diet, dogs can develop serious pathological changes in the body:

  • Hypovitaminosis. Occurs if the animal consumes an insufficient amount of nutrients from the specified daily intake. The appearance of hypovitaminosis may also be associated with gastrointestinal and liver problems.
  • Beriberi. It is a more severe form of the disease, which is characterized by a complete lack of vitamins. One of the main reasons for the development of beriberi is poor, unbalanced feeding without vitamins and minerals.

When choosing treatment, the veterinarian, first of all, takes into account the complexity of the complex interaction of vitamins and minerals in the dog’s body.

Types of beriberi and hypovitaminosis and their treatment

Most often there is a lack or complete absence of the following vitamins:

  1. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) – its deficiency leads to disorders of the nervous system, which is accompanied by seizures and seizures. The causes of occurrence are long – term feeding of the animal with food with a low content of B1. Since the dog’s body is not able to synthesize thiamine independently, the necessary amount of this substance must come with the food.
    For the treatment of beriberi, thiamine injections are used at the rate of 1 mg per 1 kg of weight.
    Hypovitaminosis occurs as a result of unbalanced feeding, as well as when using food containing various enzymes that destroy B1. When treating a sick individual, 0.5 mg B1 is administered per 1 kg of body weight. Prevention includes feeding a four-legged friend with a quality balanced food.
  2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) – its deficiency causes dermatitis, ulcers on the paws, stomach and oral area. The causes of the disease are the complete absence of Riboflavin in the food. Deficiency can also develop due to improper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, when the absorption capacity of the intestines is disrupted. Treatment is carried out by administration of the drug B2 5 mg. After a course of injections, the ulcers completely heal.
    With hypovitaminosis, the dog loses weight, the skin begins to peel off, sometimes turn red. Gait and movement become uneven. Prevention of the disease is based on proper nutrition. An adult healthy individual requires 200-400 mcg of Riboflavin per 100 g of food.
  3. Vitamin B6 (adermin) – its deficiency causes anemia. In puppies with this disease, there is a slowdown in growth, problems with teeth, and a decrease in the copper content in the blood.
    Treatment consists in the introduction of adermin in a dose of up to 1 g per 1 kg of pet weight. To eliminate the lack of B6, the owner needs to organize a balanced diet for the pet. This is especially important during pregnancy and lactation.
  4. B12 vitamins – the lack of which leads to a violation of functional hematopoiesis. The cause of the disease is a violation of the absorption processes in the gastrointestinal tract due to changes in the intestinal microflora.As a treatment, injections of the substance are used at the rate of 10 micrograms per 1 kg of animal weight at intervals of two days. As a preventive measure during lactation and pregnancy, you should give fortified food, such as cod fish, meat, milk, and cottage cheese. The use of saturated food in combination with antibiotics gives better results when the diet is marked by a lack of protein or Riboflavin;
  5. Folic acid – its lack leads to anemia of the animal and violation of the fat exchange process. The causes of this disease are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, a long course of antibiotics and unbalanced food.
    Since folic acid is toxic, it should be administered carefully and in precise doses. A sick dog should be given 2 mg per 1 kg of weight. If you feed a properly selected, balanced food, then additional folic acid intake is not necessary. As a preventive measure, timely treatment of stomach and intestinal disorders of a pet, an increase in B12, ascorbic acid, choline and tocopherol in food is necessary;
  6. Vitamin A – its lack leads to a violation of the processes of keratinization of the skin. The causes of the disease are chronic diseases of the stomach and intestines that cause changes in the absorption processes. In the early stages of the disease, treatment is more effective. A sick pet should be given 5000 IU of vitamin A per 1 kg of body weight per day.
    Preventive measures include the establishment of nutrition for puppies and adult females during pregnancy. Products that should be entered in the dog’s menu: eggs, liver, milk.
  7. Vitamin E (tocopherol) – its absence can lead to infertility of the animal. The reasons for the deficiency are an increased amount of polyunsaturated fats, lack of amino acids and selenium. Pancreatitis and cirrhosis can also lead to a decrease in the required tocopherol content.
    Treatment is based on intramuscular or oral administration of vitamin E at a dose of up to 10 g per day. Prevention includes the consumption of high-vitamin foods.
  8. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) – its lack leads to a violation of redox processes. Since dogs are able to synthesize vitamin in the body, disorders in the gastrointestinal tract lead to a deficiency of ascorbic acid. Also, normal intestinal absorption may be impaired due to achilia and enteritis.
    As a treatment for insufficiency, the pet is added to the diet up to 100 mg of acid per day per 6 kg of weight.For favorable conditions of synthesis, it is necessary to diversify the food of a four-legged friend. Puppies and pregnant females need increased ascorbic acid intake, so the diet is calculated individually for them.

Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis are quite common diseases of dogs. Systematic violation of the feeding regime and the use of poor-quality food can lead to serious health problems for a four-legged friend. The task of the owner is to provide the pet with proper nutrition. Balanced, enriched with minerals and vitamins, the food helps prevent the development of many ailments, stimulates productive function, and increases the body’s resistance to various types of viruses.